Funding - FCT (PTDC/CLE-LIN/120897/2010)
Start date: 1st March 2012
Research Team:
Ana Lúcia Santos (Project coordinator)
Acrisio Pires
Anabela Gonçalves                                                       
Carla Soares
Cristina Flores
Inês Duarte
Jason Rothman
Nina Hyams
Perpétua Gonçalves
Purificação Silvano
Rui Marques
Ruth Lopes
Sandra Duarte Tavares (2012-2013)
Victor Justino
Alexandrina Martins
Alice de Jesus
Filomena Gamas
Aida Cardoso (scholar grant until February 2014; researcher)
Celina Agostinho (scholar grant)
                                                             imagem_teste_elefantes
                                                                                      
Summary:

The acquisition of complement clauses in Portuguese has not been sufficiently explored. This project is intended to fill this gap. At a more descriptive level, the project aims to get a more complete picture of an understudied area of language acquisition research, the acquisition of complement clauses, taking into account data from different varieties of the same language (Portuguese) and different contexts of acquisition (typical L1 vs. heritage speakers’ acquisition).
At a theoretical level, it seeks to determine the extent to which:
(i) the notion of derivational complexity that is relevant for acquisition is able to explain the acquisition path of complement clauses and whether it should integrate in its definition different degrees of complexity associated with different types of features in the C node;
(ii) the path of acquisition of a target structure is affected not only by the acquisition of functional structure but also by general interpretation preferences, e.g. interpretation of embedded subjects or assumptions on temporal concord and tense (in)dependence between matrix and embedded clause;
(iii) differences in the input (in different varieties and in different acquisition contexts) affect the acquisition path and ultimately language change;
(iv) differences among varieties of the same language may be explained by apparently unrelated changes in other areas of the grammar (e.g. loss of V-to-C and loss of inflection leading to loss of inflected infinitives in B(razilian) P(ortuguese)).
Portuguese gives us an especially good opportunity to address these questions, given the wide range of clausal complement constructions available, in particular, inflected infinitives and the indicative vs. subjunctive contrast.
The projection of an embedded CP involves the interaction of lexical acquisition and syntactic structure, since it implies knowledge of the subcategorization properties of the matrix verb. These properties may be in part reduced to the selection of Cs with different features (see [6]) and this also determines tense dependency, a property classically taken to interact with (i) mood choice, i.e. indicative vs. subjunctive and (ii) licensing of inflected infinitives. Time dependency also directly interacts with the formation of complex predicates with control, perception and causative verbs. The question is when and how children acquire these structures in the different varieties of Portuguese and to what extent the acquisition path confirms a correlation between (i) the different structures and / or (ii) between these structures and general syntax-semantics properties such as tense dependency.
Finally, both mood choice and the contrast between inflected and non-inflected infinitives influence the interpretation of null subjects. As opposed to subjects of indicatives, the null subject of a subjunctive complement and the matrix clause subject must be disjoint in reference (obviation effect). Similarly, inflected infinitives allow for non-obligatory control readings, whereas non-inflected infinitives determine obligatory control readings of null subjects. Furthermore, the child acquiring Portuguese must determine whether a PRO subject is controlled by the matrix subject, the object or the indirect object (indirect object control has not been studied, available studies being centered in English). Portuguese allows us to compare children’s preferences in the interpretation of null subjects in all these different contexts and to uncover the existence of general tendencies and how they might interact with the acquisition of the different types of embedded clauses. The majority of other languages would not allow a comparison between all these different contexts.
This project can make precise the possible correlations among all these properties, something that could not be achieved by studies in other languages, since e.g. inflected infinitives are not in general available in other null subject languages with an indicative / subjunctive contrast (except for Galician). The study of the acquisition of complement clauses in different varieties of Portuguese, namely E(uropean) P(ortuguese), BP and Moz(ambican) P(ortuguese), which are arguably following different paths of change, will allow us to develop an integrated view of acquisition and language change. It will also investigate acquisition by bilingual heritage speakers, making it possible to establish a correlation between different paths of acquisition, different input conditions and attrition phenomena.


Workshops:

***
Final workshop: June 18th-19th (program)  

The project organized a workshop on the Acquisition of Complement Clauses in Portuguese, during the 13th International Congress for the Study of Child Language (program).


Publications and presentations


1) Publications:

Books

Santos, A. L. & A. Gonçalves (eds.) (in prep.).
Complement clauses in Portuguese. Syntax and acquisition. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. [Expected 2016]


Journal papers

Santos, A. L., A. Gonçalves, & N. Hyams (2015) Aspects of the acquisition of object control and ECM-type verbs in European Portuguese. Language Acquisition. DOI: 10.1080/10489223.2015.1067320

Duarte, I., A. L. Santos & N. Alexandre (2015). How relative are purpose relatives? Probus, 27.2: 237-270. Published Online: 12/04/2014 DOI: 10.1515/probus-2014-0002 [PDF]

Marques, R. (2014). Référence au réel et concordance des temps en portugais européen. Travaux linguistiques du Cerlico, 27. Presses Universitaires de Rennes. [PDF]

Santos, A. L. & C. Flores (accepted Dec. 4th 2014, published 2016). Comparing heritage speakers and late L2-learners of European Portuguese: verb movement, VP ellipsis and adverb placement. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. doi: 10.1075/lab.14006.san [PDF]


Other papers

Agostinho, C., A. L. Santos & I. Duarte (in prep.) The acquisition of Control in European Portuguese. In A. L. Santos & A. Gonçalves (eds.), Complement clauses in Portuguese: adult syntax and acquisition. John Benjamins.

Alexandre, N., I. Duarte & A. L. Santos (2013). Infinitivos pessoais: uma viagem transatlântica. In D. Moura & M. Sibaldo (eds.), Para a História do Português Brasileiro – Volume III: Estudos Comparativos entre o Português Brasileiro e Línguas Crioulas de Base Lexical Portuguesa, Tomo IV. Maceió: EDUFAL, pp. 49-71. [PDF]

Duarte, I. A. Gonçalves & A. L. Santos (2012). Infinitivo flexionado, independência temporal e controlo. In A. Costa, C. Flores & N. Alexandre (eds.), Textos Selecionados do XXVII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Lisboa: APL, pp. 217-234.

Duarte, I., A. L. Santos & A. Gonçalves (accepted). O infinitivo flexionado na gramática do adulto e na aquisição de L1. In A. M. Martins & E. Carrilho (eds.), Manual de Linguística Portuguesa. Berlin/New York: Mouton De Gruyter.

Gonçalves, A., R. Marques, A. L. Santos, P. Silvano & S. D. Tavares (2013). Sequências de tempos em completivas finitas: restrições semânticas e efeitos na aquisição. In F. Silva, I. Falé & I. Pereira (eds.), Textos Selecionados do XXVIII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Coimbra: APL, pp. 433-452. [PDF]

Gonçalves, A., A. L. Santos, I. Duarte & V. Justino (in prep.) The acquisition of infinitival complements to causative verbs in Mozambican Portuguese. In A. L. Santos & A. Gonçalves (eds.), Complement clauses in Portuguese: adult syntax and acquisition. John Benjamins.

Gonçalves, A., A. L. Santos & I. Duarte (2014). (Pseudo-)Inflected infinitives and Control as Agree. In K. Lahousse & S. Marzo (eds.), Selected papers from ‘Going Romance’. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 161-180. [PDF]

Marques, R. (in prep.) Subjunctive and subject obviation in Portuguese. A. L. Santos & A. Gonçalves (eds.), Complement clauses in Portuguese: adult syntax and acquisition. John Benjamins.

Marques, R. & A. T. Alves (2014). Sobre as variações de modo nas frases subordinadas temporais com antes. In A. Moreno, F. Silva, I. Falé, I. Pereira & J. Veloso (eds.), Textos Selecionados do XXIX Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Porto: APL, pp. 333-343. 

Marques, R., P. Silvano, A. Gonçalves & A. L. Santos (2015). Sequence of tenses in complementation structures: lexical restrictions and effects on language acquisition. In R. Klassen, J. M. Liceras & E. Valenzuela (eds.), Hispanic Linguistics at the Crossroads. Theoretical linguistics, language acquisition and language contact. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 69-88. [PDF]

Martins, A., A. L. Santos & I. Duarte (in press). Syntactic complexity in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Specific Language Impairment. In V. Escobar, L. Torrens & T. Parodi (eds.), Language Processing and Disorders. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. [expected 2016]

Rothman, J., I. Duarte, A. Pires & A. L. Santos (2013). How early after all?: Inflected infinitives in European and Brazilian Portuguese L1 production. In S. Stavrakaki, M. Lalioti & P. Konstatinopoulou (eds.), Advances in Language Acquisition. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 164-172. [PDF]

Santos, A. L. (in press). Alguns aspetos da aquisição de completivas. In M. J. Freitas & A. L. Santos (eds.), A aquisição de língua materna e não materna. Questões gerais e dados do Português. Lisboa: INCM.

Santos, A. L. & C. Flores (2013). Elipse do SV e distribuição de advérbios em Português Língua de Herança e L2. In F. Silva, I. Falé & I. Pereira (eds.), Textos Selecionados do XXVIII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Coimbra: APL, pp. 563-584. [PDF]

Santos, A. L., M. J. Freitas & A. Cardoso (in press). CEPLEXicon – um Léxico de Aquisição do Português Europeu. In Textos Selecionados do XXX Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Porto: APL.

Santos, A. L., M. Génereux, A. Cardoso, C. Agostinho & S. Abalada (2014). A corpus of European Portuguese child and child-directed speech. In Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation – LREC 2014. European Language Resources Association (ELRA), pp. 1488-1491. [ISBN 978-2-9517408-8-4, EAN 9782951740884] [PDF]

Santos, A. L., A. Gonçalves, & N. Hyams (2015). Aspects of the acquisition of object control and ECM-type verbs in EP. In C. Hamann & E. Ruigendijk (eds.), Language Acquisition and Development. Proceedings of GALA 2013. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 403-415. [PDF]

Santos, A. L., A. Gonçalves, & N. Hyams (2014). Complementos de verbos percetivos, causativos e de controlo de objeto em português europeu: dados da aquisição. In A. Moreno, F. Silva, I. Falé, I. Pereira & J. Veloso (eds.), Textos Selecionados do XXIX Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Porto: APL, pp. 481-492. [PDF]

Santos, A. L., J. Rothman, A. Pires, I. Duarte (2013). Early or late acquisition of inflected infinitives in European Portuguese?: Evidence from spontaneous production data. In M. Becker, J. Grinstead & J. Rothman (eds.), Generative Linguistics and Acquisition. Studies in Honor of Nina M. Hyams. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 65-88.  [PDF]

 

 2) Presentations:

Santos, A. L., M. J. Freitas & A. Cardoso (accepted) CEPLEXicon – A lexicon of child European Portuguese. Poster. Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC) 2016. May 23-28, Portoroz (Slovenia).

Gamas, F., I. Duarte & A. L. Santos (2016) First Steps in Obviation and Control. Oral presentation. NonFinite Subjects Conference. Université de Nantes. April 1-2.

Agostinho, C., A. L. Santos & I. Duarte (2016) Comprehension of control in obligatory control contexts: choice of controller by children aged 3 to 5 years. Poster. NonFinite Subjects Conference. Université de Nantes. April 1-2.

Agostinho, C. (2015). The acquisition of control in European Portuguese: A study on comprehension. Experimental Methods in language Acquisition Research (EMLAR) XI.  Utrecht, April 15th-17th. [PDF]

Agostinho, C. (2014a). The Acquisition of Control in Complement Clauses in European Portuguese. ConSOLE XXII. Universidade de Lisboa, January 8th-10th. [PDF]

Agostinho, C. (2014b). The acquisition of control in European Portuguese complement clauses. Poster presentation. International Conference on Language Acquisition for Young Researchers. Universidade de Lisboa, June 27th.

Agostinho, C., A. L. Santos & I. Duarte (2015). Comprehension of control in complement clauses:  choice of controller in obligatory control contexts. Poster and alternate presentation. Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition(GALA). Université de Nantes, September 10th-12th

Agostinho, C., A. L. Santos & I. Duarte (2014). Acquisition of Control in European Portuguese: some facts about comprehension. Romance Turn VI. Palma de Mallorca, September 18th-20th.

Alexandre, N., A. L. Santos & I. Duarte (2012). Personal infinitives and the status of Capeverdean as a partial null subject language. Formal Approaches to Creole Studies (FACS) III. Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa, November 15th-16th. [PDF]

Duarte, I. (2013). Infinitivos pessoais e línguas de sujeito nulo parcial. Invited talk. Universidade Federal do Paraná. [PDF]

Duarte, I., A. Gonçalves & A. L. Santos (2012). Inflected infinitives revisited. XXII Colóquio de Gramática Generativa. Barcelona, March 21st-23rd. [PDF]

Flores, C. (2013a). A importância da experiência linguística na aquisição de uma língua de herança. Invited talk. Primeiras jornadas de português língua não materna. Universidade do Porto, December 2nd. [PDF]

Flores, C. (2013b). Português Língua Herança: reflexões sobre a aquisição da língua de origem num contexto de migração. Talk presented to X.Lusitanistentag. University of Hamburg, September 11th-14th. [PDF]

Flores, C., A. L. Santos, L. Almeida, A. Jesus & R. Marques (accepted). Aquisição do modo verbal em Português Europeu em contacto com o Francês e com o Alemão como línguas dominantes. XXXI Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Universidade do Minho, October 28th-30th 2015.

Flores, C., A. L. Santos, R. Marques & A. de Jesus (2015). Age and input in the acquisition of mood. First Conference on Bilingualism in the Hispanic and Lusophone World. University of Leiden, January 14th-16th. [PDF]

Flores, C., A. L. Santos, R. Marques & A. Jesus (2014a). Aquisição do modo verbal em Português Língua de Herança. XXX Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Universidade do Porto, October 22nd-24th.

Flores, C., A. L. Santos, R. Marques & A. de Jesus (2014b). The role of input in the acquisition of mood by heritage speakers of European Portuguese. Romance Turn VI. Palma de Mallorca, September 18th-20th.

Flores, C., A. L. Santos, R. Marques & A. de Jesus (2014c). Acquisition of mood in Heritage Portuguese. 13th International Congress for the Study of Child Language (IASCL). Amsterdam, July 14th-18th.

Gonçalves, A. (2014). Temporal properties of infinitival domains in EP: Data from inflected infinitives in obligatory subject control contexts. Invited talk. First Seminar on Control and Finiteness at USP. São Paulo, July 30th-August 1st.

Gonçalves, A., R. Marques, A. L. Santos, P. Silvano & S. D. Tavares (2012). Sequências de tempos em completivas finitas: restrições lexicais e efeitos na aquisição. XXVIII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Universidade do Algarve, October 25th-27th.

Gonçalves, A., A. L. Santos, I. Duarte & V. Justino (2014). Complementos de verbos causativos no Português de Moçambique. XXX Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Universidade do Porto, October 22nd-24th.

Jesus, A. (2015). The acquisition of mood by monolingual speakers of European Portuguese.  Experimental Methods in language Acquisition Research (EMLAR) XI.  Utrecht, April 15th-17th. [PDF]

Jesus, A. (2014a). Mood Selection in Early Complement Clauses of European Portuguese. Romance Turn VI. Palma de Mallorca, September 18th-20th.

Jesus, A. (2014b). Mood Selection in Early Complement Clauses of European Portuguese. ConSOLE XXII. University of Lisbon, January 8th-10th. [PDF]

Jesus, A. (2014c). Mood selection in early complement clauses. 13th International Congress for the Study of Child Language (IASCL). Amsterdam, July 14th-18th.

Jesus, A. (2014d). Mood selection in complement clauses of European Portuguese. International Conference on Language Acquisition for Young Researchers. Universidade de Lisboa, June 27th.

Jesus, A., R. Marques & A. L. Santos (2015). The acquisition of mood in complement clauses: epistemicity and veridicality. Poster and alternate presentation. Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA). Université de Nantes, September 10th-12th.

Lungu, O., R. Marques, A. L. Santos & A. Jesus (accepted). Simultaneous interpretations of complement clauses in European Portuguese child language. Romance Turn VII. Venice, October 1st-3rd.

Marques, R. (2013). Realis and Sequence of tenses. 27ème Colloque du CerLiCO. Du réel à l'irréel. Univ. Limoges / CeReS, June 7th-8th. [PDF]

Marques, R. & A. T. Alves (2013). Sobre as variações de modo nas frases subordinadas com antes. XXIX Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística 2013. Universidade de Coimbra, October 23rd-25th. [PDF]

Marques, R., P. Silvano, A. Gonçalves & A. L. Santos (2013). Sequence of tenses in complementation structures: lexical restrictions and effects on language acquisition. Hispanic Linguistics Symposium 2013. University of Ottawa, October 17th-20th. [PDF]

Martins, A., C. Agostinho, I. Duarte & A. L. Santos (2014). Compreensão de algumas estruturas de controlo por crianças com desenvolvimento típico e atípico. IV Workshop on Linguistics, Language Development and Impairment. Universidade de Lisboa, January 31st. [PDF]

Martins, A., A. L. Santos & I. Duarte (accepted). Complexidade sintática em cranças com PEL e PEA. XXXI Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Universidade do Minho, October 28th-30th, 2015.

Martins, A., A. L. Santos & I. Duarte (2014). Comprehension of relatives and control structures in SLI and ASD children. Workshop on Specific Language Impairment. Madrid, October 1st-3rd.

Santos, A. L. (2015). Infinitivos flexionados na aquisição do Português. II Jornadas – Comunicação e Desenvolvimento da Linguagem. Universidade do Minho, March 7th.

Santos, A. L. (2014a). A construção de um corpus no sistema CHILDES. Invited talk. Fórum CHILDES Brasil. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, September 29th-30th.

Santos, A. L. (2014b). Aspetos da aquisição de verbos de ECM e de controlo de objeto: dados de produção e de compreensão. Invited talk. LAPAL, PUC, Rio de Janeiro, October 2nd.

Santos, A. L. (2014c). Aquisição de completivas: alguns dados. 10º Encontro Leitura, Literatura Infantil e Ilustração. Universidade do Minho, July, 4th-5th.

Santos, A. L. (2014d). Children’s early preference for inflected infinitives. Invited talk. University of Reading, March 28th. [PDF]

Santos, A. L. (2013). Some aspects of the acquisition of inflected infinitives. Invited talk. Universidade Autónoma de Barcelona, March 15th. [PDF]

Santos, A. L., I. Duarte & A. Gonçalves (2012). (Pseudo-)Inflected infinitives and control as agreement. Going Romance 2012. Leuven, December 6th-8th. [PDF]

Santos, A. L. & C. Flores (2012a). Comparing heritage speakers and late L2-learners of European Portuguese: verb movement, VP ellipsis and adverb placement. Workshop on Acquisition at the Interface. Tromso, October 22th-23th. [PDF]

Santos, A. L. & C. Flores (2012b). Comparing heritage speakers and late L2-learners of European Portuguese: verb movement, VP ellipsis and adverb placement. Workshop on Crosslinguistic Influence in Non-Native Language Acquisition. Universidade Nova de Lisboa, June 29th-30th. [PDF]

Santos, A. L. & C. Flores (2013a). Elipse do SV, distribuição de advérbios e movimento do verbo em português língua de herança e L2. Invited talk. Primeiras jornadas de português língua não materna. Universidade do Porto, December 2nd. [PDF]

Santos, A. L. & C. Flores (2013b). Age and crosslinguistic influence effects in L2 and heritage language acquisition: adverb placement and VP ellipsis. Generative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition (GASLA). University of Florida, April 26th-28th. [PDF]

Santos, A. L. , M. J. Freitas, A. Cardoso (2014a). CEPLEXicon –Um Léxico de Aquisição para o  Português Europeu. Poster. XXX Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Universidade do Porto, October 22nd-24th.

Santos, A. L., M. J. Freitas & A. Cardoso (2014b). CEPLEXicon - A Lexicon of Child European Portuguese. 10º Encontro Leitura, Literatura Infantil e Ilustração. Universidade do Minho, July 4th-5th.

Santos, A. L., M. Généreux, A. Cardoso, C. Agostinho & S. Abalada (2014). A corpus of European Portuguese child and child-directed speech. 9thInternational Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC). Reykjavik, May 26th-31st.

Santos, A. L., A. Gonçalves & N. Hyams (2014). Object control and ECM-type verbs in European Portuguese: elicited and spontaneous production. 13th International Congress for the Study of Child Language (IASCL). Amsterdam, July 14th-18th

Santos, A. L., A. Gonçalves & N. Hyams (2013a).  Aquisição de verbos de ECM e de controlo de objecto em Português Europeu. XXIX Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Universidade de Coimbra, October 23rd-25th. [PDF]

Santos, A. L., A. Gonçalves & N. Hyams (2013b). Aspects of the acquisition of object control and ECM-type verbs in EP.  Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA). Oldenburg, September 5th-7th. [PDF]

 


MA dissertations:

 

Agostinho, C. (2014) The acquisition of control in European Portuguese complement clauses. MA in Linguistics, U. Lisboa. (advisor: A. L. Santos; co-advisor: I. Duarte) [The dissertation received the Research Prize of the Portuguese Linguistics Association in 2015] [PDF

Jesus, A. (2014) Aquisição do modo em orações completivas do Português Europeu. MA in Linguistics, U. Lisboa. (advisor: R. Marques; co-advisor: A. L. Santos) [PDF]


Language resources made available within this project:
 
 Santos - European Portuguese (corpus of child and child-directed speech) (ISLRN: 532-620-702-768-3)

Santos, Ana Lúcia, Maria João Freitas & Aida Cardoso (2014) CEPLEXicon - A Lexicon of Child European Portuguese. Lisboa: Anagrama (CLUL, FLUL). ISLRN: 408-817-203-152-3 , ELRA ID: ELRA-L0094

Schools collaborating with the project:
Jardim de Infância SASUL
Letrinhas
Externato da Luz
APIST
Centro Social da Paróquia de São Sebastião da Pedreira
Colégio Nyamunda - Mozambique 
Centro Infantil 29 de Setembro - Mozambique 

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