The origins and development of creole societies in the Gulf of Guinea: an interdisciplinary study


Start: April 1, 2011; End: September 30, 2014.

Proposal summary:
The goal of this project is to obtain a composite picture of the origins of the creole populations of the Gulf of Guinea (GG) islands São Tomé, Príncipe and Annobón during the early settlement and consolidation stages (1493-1600) by using an interdisciplinary method with a strong focus on linguistics. In particular, we will explore the hypothesis that the presence of an African founder slave population from the old kingdom of Benin (Nigeria) in the early settlement on S. Tomé left a strong imprint on linguistic, genetic and anthropological creolization.

At the end of the 15th century, the island of S. Tomé was permanently settled by the Portuguese and slaves from the African mainland, thereby initiating a complex and unique process of linguistic, genetic and cultural mixing. Preliminary historical and linguistic evidence suggest that the slave population on S. Tomé during the homestead stage (approx. 1493-1520) largely originated from the Edoid-speaking peoples of Nigeria. The plantation stage (approx. 1520-1600), on the other hand, shows a predominance of western Bantu slaves. The early contact between African slaves and Portuguese settlers on S. Tomé created the right environment for the birth of a new language, the proto-creole of the GG, which quickly spread in time and space into four different creole languages that are spoken on three islands: on S. Tomé, Santome (São-Tomense, Forro) is the direct descendant of the proto-creole and Angolar is arguably the result of maroonage from the initial settlement; on Príncipe, the local creole is known as Lung’ie (Principense); on  Annobón, the creole is locally known as Fa d’Ambô. These four Portuguese-related creoles are spoken by historically self-identifying groups and are, to different extents, endangered languages.

The fact that the Gulf of Guinea creoles (GGCs) are relatively well documented allows us to compile a corpus comprising linguistic data and carry out lexical and grammatical comparisons through automatic processing in order to reconstruct the proto-creole of the GG. The reconstructed language will then be typologically compared with the relevant African strata in order to assess the linguistic impact of the founder slave population.

The linguistic results will be compared with findings from genetics in order to determine to what extent genes and languages co-evolved in the GG. Previous genetic research on the population of S. Tomé has proven this correlation to exist, since it managed to set apart the Angolares from the remaining population of the island. The Angolares, who were often described as Bantus, both linguistically and anthropologically, turn out to exhibit significant imprints from the Benin genotype. The project will extend the genetic survey to Lung’ie and Fa d’Ambô speakers, in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the genetic differentiation among the different creole groups in the GG.

The contribution of the historical component is also crucial, since the early slave trade in the GG and settlement of the islands are still understudied areas. The project will seek to fill in several lacunas by conducting new archival research and systematizing the available data on the slave trade (origins, numbers, etc.), migration between the islands and early population demographics for each of the three islands. Finally, the anthropological component of the project will describe and systematize several elements of local creole culture and compare them both with African mainland cultures.

By comparing the findings of the disciplines above we will be able to assess, on the one hand, what type of correlation holds between linguistic, genetic and anthropological creolization and, on the other, to what extent a putative founder effect holds across disciplines. The outcomes of the project will not only be meaningful for each of the different disciplines in isolation, but will also constitute an important contribution to our knowledge of creolization in the GG and creolization processes in general. The results of this project will further be of great importance to the population groups that are directly involved in this study.

The interdisciplinary nature of the project contains a high degree of innovation, since this approach to population origins has not been conducted for other creole societies around the globe, and will lead to significant progress in the state of the art of each of the disciplines involved in this study. The research team consists of specialists on the GG islands or on the topics directly related to the project and has the additional strength that its members already function as a research network due to common interests.

Output:

A – Publications

Linguistic corpora

- Angolar corpus: http://alfclul.clul.ul.pt/CQPweb/Angolar/

- Fa d’Ambô corpus: http://alfclul.clul.ul.pt/CQPweb/Fadambo/

- Principense corpus: http://alfclul.clul.ul.pt/CQPweb/Principense/

- Santome corpus: http://alfclul.clul.ul.pt/CQPweb/Santome/

 

Books / Book chapters / Proceedings

Alexandre, Nélia & Tjerk Hagemeijer. 2013. Estratégias de relativização de PPs no mundo luso-atlântico: crioulos de base lexical portuguesa e variedades do português. In Maria Denilda Moura & Marcelo Amorim Sibaldo (orgs.), Para a história do português brasileiro. Volume III – Sintaxe comparativa entre o português brasileiro e línguas crioulas de base lexical portuguesa, 49-71. Maceió: EDUFAL.

Araújo, Gabriel Antunes de & Tjerk Hagemeijer. 2013. Dictionário santome-português, Livlu-nglandji santome-putugêji. São Paulo: Hedra.

Caldeira, Arlindo. 2013. Aprender os trópicos: plantações e trabalho escravo na ilha de São Tomé, 25-54. In Margarida V. R. Machado et al. (coord.), Para a história da escravatura insular nos séculos XV a XIX, Ponta Delgada, CHAM.

Cardoso, Hugo; Hagemeijer, Tjerk; Alexandre, Nélia. (forthc.). Crioulos de base lexical portuguesa. M. Iliescu & E. Roegiest (eds.), Anthologies, textes, attestations et sources des langues romanes, Mouton de Gruyter.

Gonçalves, Rita. 2013. Construções-Q e de clivagem no português de S. Tomé. In Textos Seleccionados do XXVIII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística 2012. Lisboa: APL.

Gonçalves, Rita. 2012. Mudança linguística e variação no português de S. Tomé. In Roque, Ana Cristina; Gerard Seibert e Vítor Rosado Marques (coord.). Livro de Atas - Colóquio Internacional: São Tomé e Príncipe numa perspectiva interdisciplinar, diacrónica e sincrónica. Lisboa: ISCTE - IUL/CEA-IUL/IICT.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. (2015). The Gulf of Guinea creoles: A case-study of syntactic reconstruction. In Carlotta Viti (ed.), Perspectives on historical syntax. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2013. The Gulf of Guinea creoles: genetic and typological relations. In Parth Bhatt & Tonjes Veenstra (eds.), Creole languages and linguistic typology, 163-206 (Benjamins Current Topics, 57). Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk; Généreux, Michel; Hendrickx, Iris; Pereira, Amália; Tiny, Abigail; Zamora, Armando. 2014. The Gulf of Guinea creole corpora. In N. Calzolari et al. (eds), Proceedings of the he 9th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), 523-529. Reykjavik: European Language Resources Association.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk; Hendrickx, Iris; Amaro, Haldane; Tiny, Abigail (2012). A Corpus of Santome. In Proceedings of the SALTMIL-AfLaT workshop, Istanbul, Turkey, 2012. European Language Resources Association (ELRA).

Hagemeijer, Tjerk & Ota Ogie. 2011. Edo influence on Santome: evidence from verb serialization and beyond. In Claire Lefebvre (ed.), Creoles, their substrates, and language typology, 37-60. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Seibert, Gerhard. 2012.  Creolization and creole communities in the Portuguese Atlantic. São Tomé, Cape Verde, the Rivers of Guinea and Central Africa in comparison, 29-51, In: Toby Green (ed.), Brokers of change: Atlantic commerce and cultures in pre-colonial Western Africa (Proceedings of the British Academy Series). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tiny, Abigail; Amaro, Haldane; Hendrickx, Iris; Hagemeijer, Tjerk (2012). O forro: A construção de um corpus. In Ana Cristina Roque, Gerhard Seibert e Vítor Rosado Marques (coord.). Livro de Atas - Colóquio Internacional: São Tomé e Príncipe numa perspectiva interdisciplinar, diacrónica e sincrónica. Lisboa: ISCTE-IUL; IICT, 597-609.

 

Articles in international journals

Araújo, Gabriel Antunes. 2011. Consoantes com dupla articulação e onsets complexos nas línguas crioulas do Golfo da Guiné. Estudos Linguísticos, v. 40, 316-325, 2011.

Araújo, Gabriel Antunes; Agostinho, Ana Lívia dos Santos. A language game in Fa d´Ambô. Papia, v. 24 (2), p. 265-281, 2014.

Araujo, Gabriel Antunes; Agostinho, Ana Lívia dos Santos; Menezes, M. B.; Silveira, A. C.; Freitas, S. 2013. Fa d’Ambô: língua crioula de base portuguesa de Ano Bom. Cadernos de Estudos Linguísticos (UNICAMP), v. 55, p. 25-44.

Bhatt, Parth; Généreux, Michel; Hagemeijer, Tjerk; Michael Oakes. Submitted. Reconstructing the basic vocabulary of the Gulf of Guinea Creoles. Journal of Language Contact.

Caldeira, Arlindo. 2011 (2014). Learning the ropes in the tropics: Slavery and the plantation system on the island of São Tomé. African Economic History, Vol. 39: 35-71.

Gonçalves, Rita & Tjerk Hagemeijer. 2015. O português num contexto multilingue: O caso de São Tomé e Príncipe. Revista Científica da Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (RC-UEM).

Hagemeijer, Tjerk & Nélia Alexandre. 2012. Os crioulos da Alta Guiné e do Golfo da Guiné: uma comparação sintáctica. Papia 22(2), 207-226.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk & Jorge Rocha. Accepted. Creole languages and genes: the case of São Tomé e Príncipe. Faits de langue.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk & Armando Zamora. Fa d’Ambô: Past and present. Accepted. International Journal of the Sociology of Language.

 

Articles in national journals

Caldeira, Arlindo. forthc. Os portugueses no Golfo da Guiné: primeiros contactos e estratégias iniciais de aproveitamento económico (1471-1520). Revista Arquipélago-História.

 

B - Presentations

Presentations at international scientific meetings

Alexandre, Nélia; Gonçalves, Rita; Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2011. PP-relativization in African Varieties of Portuguese: between contact and convergent change. In Rethinking Contact-Induced Change, 9-11 de Junho, Leiden: Leiden University.

Amaro, Haldane; Généreux, Michel; Hagemeijer, Tjerk; Hendrickx, Iris; Mendes, Amália, Tiny, Abigail; Zamora, Armando. 2013. The Gulf of Guinea creole corpora, Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Amaro, Haldane; Généreux, Michel; Mendes, Amália. 2013. Identification and categorization of multi-lexical units in the Gulf of Guinea creoles. Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Araújo, Gabriel; Bhatt, Parth; Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2013. Tracing the origins of the Gulf of Guinea creoles: Evidence from phonology, Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Araújo, Gabriel & Ana Lívia Agostinho. 2014. Onglides and offglides in Lung'Ie. Workshop II Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Araújo, Gabriel & Tjerk Hagemeijer. 2013. Dictionary of Santome-Portuguese/Portuguese-Santome, Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Araújo, Gabriel Antunes. 2011. Harmonia vocálica nas línguas Santomé, Principense, Angolar, Fá d’Ambô e Papiamentu. Encontro anual da ACBLPE, Porto.

Araújo, Gabriel Antunes & Ana Lívia dos Santos Agostinho. 2011. Processes of external vocalic sandhi in Principense. OSUCHILL 2011, Ohio State University.

Araújo, Gabriel; Bhatt, Parth; Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2012. Revisiting the liquid consonants in the Gulf of Guinea creoles. Formal Approaches to Creole Studies II, Universidade de Lisboa.

Bhatt, Parth; Généreux, Michel; Hagemeijer, Tjerk; Michael Oakes. 2014. Reconstructing the basic vocabulary of the Gulf of Guinea Creoles. Workshop II Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Bhatt, Parth & Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2012. Complex onsets in Santome: Phonological innovations in creoles?, Ninth Creolistics Conference, Aarhus.

Bostoen, Koen. 2014. Kikongo: Ongoing research and potentialities for future research on the Gulf of Guinea creoles. Workshop II Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Généreux, Michel & Tjerk Hagemeijer. 2013. Corpus-based preliminary statistics on the Gulf of Guinea creoles. Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Généreux, Michel & Tjerk Hagemeijer. 2014. Quantative experiments with the basic vocabulary of the Gulf of Guinea creoles. Time and Space in Linguistics: Interdisciplinary Computational Approaches & Cross-Creole Comparisons, Aarhus University.

Gonçalves, Rita. 2011a. Propriedades do Português de São Tomé: complementos verbais preposicionados. 28 de Setembro, São Tomé: ISP.

Gonçalves, Rita.2011b. Functional prepositions and argument structure in Santomean Portuguese. Creole Seminar, 11 e 12 de Julho, Lisboa: FCSH-UNL. [poster]

Gonçalves, Rita. 2013a. Object pronominalization in Santomean Portuguese. In 5th European Conference on African Studies. African dynamics in a multipolar world (ECAS). 27-29 June 2013. Lisbon: ISCTE.

Gonçalves, Rita & Tjerk Hagemeijer. 2012. Subcategorization features of verbs in Santomean Portuguese: The case of dislocated PPs. Workshop on crosslinguistic influence in non-native language acquisition. Universidade Nova de Lisboa.

Güldemann, Tom. 2013. Towards identifying Bantu zone H features in Santome. Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Güldemann, Tom. 2014. The Gulf of Guinea creoles between the Macro-Sudan belt and the Bantu spread zone. Workshop II Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2014. The Gulf of Guinea creole corpora. Invited talk, ZAS, Berlin.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2012. The Gulf of Guinea creoles: Corpora and other issues. Meeting of the The Structure, Emergence and Evolution of Pidgin and Creole Languages (SEEPICLA), Université Paris Diderot (Paris 7).

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2012. Contributo para a reconstrução do proto-crioulo do Golfo da Guiné, Castilho - II Congresso Internacional de Linguística Histórica, Universidade de São Paulo (Invited talk)

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2012 The Gulf of Guinea creoles: a case-study of syntactic reconstruction. Syntactic change and syntactic reconstruction: New perspectives. University of Zurich.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2013. As origens e o desenvolvimento de sociedades crioulas no Golfo da Guiné: Um estudo interdisciplinar. Centro Cultural Português, S. Tomé. (Invited talk)

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2014. The Gulf of Guinea creoles: A case-study of syntactic reconstruction. Workshop II Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk; Généreux, Michel; Hendrickx, Iris; Pereira, Amália; Tiny, Abigail; Zamora, Armando. 2014. The Gulf of Guinea creole corpora, Workshop II Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Hendrickx, Iris. 2014. Unsupervised grammar induction for Santome. Workshop II Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Madureira, Maria do Céu. 2013. S. Tomé e Príncipe medicinal plants - The role of the mestres angolares. Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Maurer, Philippe. 2013. The African lexicon in the creoles of São Tomé and Príncipe. Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Maurer, Philippe. 2014. The plural of the noun in the Gulf of Guinea creoles. Workshop II Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Mendes, António de Almeida. 2013. The early slave trade in the Gulf of Guinea to S. Tomé. Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Ogie, Ota. 2013. Èdó concepts, beliefs and practices as depicted by Èdó lexical items in Santome and borrowed words from Portuguese. Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Ogie, Ota. 2014. Extraction in Èdó and Santome: empty categories, pronominal plugs and resumptive pronouns. Workshop II Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Rocha, Jorge. 2013. The genetic landscape of S. Tomé and Príncipe. Formal Approaches to Creole Studies III. Universidade de Lisboa. (plenary conference)

Rocha, Jorge. 2013. The genetic structure of two creole archipelagos (São Tomé e Príncipe and Cape Verde). Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Seibert, Gerhard. 2013. The Angolares: Formation, isolation and integration of São Tomé's maroon community. Workshop Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Tiny, Abigail. 2014. Avaliar distâncias lexicais e sintáticas entre os crioulos do Golfo da Guiné. Workshop II Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea, Lisboa.

Sippola, Eeva & Abigail Tiny. 2014. Noun phrases in Iberian-lexifier creoles. Time and Space in Linguistics: Interdisciplinary Computational Approaches & Cross-Creole Comparisons. Aarhus University, 15-16 de Janeiro de 2014.

 

Presentations at national scientific meetings

Araújo, Gabriel Antunes & Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2012. Dicionário santome-português/português-santome. Colóquio S. Tomé e Príncipe numa perspectiva interdisciplinar, ISCTE-IUL, Lisboa.

Caldeira, Arlindo. 2013. "A guerra do mato. Resistência à escravatura e repressão dos fugitivos na ilha de São Tomé (séculos XVI-XVIII)", Congresso Internacional "Senhores e Escravos nas Sociedades Ibero-Atlânticas" (séculos XV-XIX),Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (FCSH-UNL), 9-13 de Abril de 2013.

Caldeira, Arlindo. 2012. História de uma família, história de uma nação: a crioulização na formação da sociedade de São Tomé. Colóquio Internacional: São Tomé e Príncipe numa perspectiva interdisciplinar diacrónica e sincrónica, ISCTE-IUL, Lisboa.

Gonçalves, Rita. 2011c. O argumento dativo no Português de São Tomé: interface com o Forro. In 12º Encontro anual da ACBLPE, 7 e 8 de Julho, Porto: FLUP.
Gonçalves, Rita.

Gonçalves, Rita. 2012a. "Construções-Q e de clivagem no português de São Tomé". XXVIII Encontro Nacional da APL. 25-27 de Outubro, Faro: UALG.

Gonçalves, Rita. 2012b. Mudança linguística e variação no português de São Tomé. Colóquio Internacional: São Tomé e Príncipe numa perspectiva interdisciplinar diacrónica e sincrónica. 27-29 de Março, Lisboa: ISCTE.

Gonçalves, Rita. 2013b. "Variação no português de São Tomé: evidência de construções-Q". In 14.º Encontro anual da ACBLPE. 19-21 Junho. Lisboa: FLUL.

Gonçalves, Rita. 2014. “Dative variation in Santomean Portuguese”. In 1st International Symposium on Variation in Portuguese. 28-30 April 2014. Braga: University of Minho.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk 2012. Linguistic creolization. CIBIO, Porto.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2013. As origens e o desenvolvimento de sociedades crioulas no Golfo da Guiné: Um estudo interdisciplinar. III Feira do Livro de S. Tomé e Príncipe em Portugal, Lisboa.

Rocha, Jorge & Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2012 Línguas e genes na ilha de S. Tomé. Colóquio Internacional: São Tomé e Príncipe numa perspectiva interdisciplinar diacrónica e sincrónica, ISCTE-IUL, Lisboa.

Tiny, Abigail; Amaro, Haldane; Hendrickx, Iris; Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2012. O património oral escrito: A construção de um corpus do forro. Colóquio S. Tomé e Príncipe numa perspectiva interdisciplinar, ISCTE-IUL, Lisboa.

 

D – Organization of seminar and conferences

Hagemeijer, Tjerk (with Nélia Alexandre and Fernanda Pratas). 2012. Organization of Formal Approaches to Creole Studies III (FACS III), Universidade de Lisboa.

Seibert, Gerhard (with Ana Cristina Roque & Vítor Rosado Marques). 2012. Colóquio Internacional: São Tomé e Príncipe numa perspectiva interdisciplinar, diacrónica e sincrónica. Lisboa: ISCTE-IUL; IICT.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2013. Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea – Workshop I. Instituto Interdisciplinar da Universidade de Lisboa.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk (with Nélia Alexandre and Fernanda Pratas). 2013. Associação de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa (ACBLPE) and Society of Pidgin and Creole Linguistics (SPCL) Summer Meeting, Universidade de Lisboa.

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2014. Origins and Development of Creole Societies in the Gulf of Guinea – Workshop II. Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa.

 

MA theses

Andrade, Eurídice. 2013. Propriedades dos adjetivos em santome. MA Thesis, Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa. (supervisors: Tjerk Hagemeijer & Nélia Alexandre).

Merchiers, Maud. 2014. De Bantoe-input in het Santomense, creooltaal in de Golf van Guinea. Een socio-historische en lexico-semantische analyse. MA thesis: University of Gent (supervisor: Koen Bostoen).

Teixeira, Sérgio. 2012. Diversidade haplotípica associada a variantes no locus APOL1 que conferem resistência à doença do sono numa amostra populacional da Ilha do Príncipe. MA Thesis, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of Coimbra. (supervisors: Jorge Rocha, Manuela Alvarez, Licínio Manco)

Tiny, Abigail. 2014. As relações filogenéticas entre os crioulos do Golfo da Guiné. MA Thesis. Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa. (supervisors: Tjerk Hagemeijer & Hugo Cardoso).

 

Other (Reports)

Ferreira, Margarida. 2012. Looking for the footprints of a vanishing language. The Lung´Ie in the island of Príncipe (Gulf of Guinea). Report of Curricular Training Period (Relatório de Estágio Curricular), Biology Department of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto. (Supervisor: Jorge Rocha)

Machado, Maria Teresa. 2013. The genetic structure of the Island of Príncipe and its implications for the origin and development of human creole societies in the Gulf of Guinea. Report of Curricular Training Period (Relatório de Estágio Curricular), Biology Department of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto. (Supervisor: Jorge Rocha)